A responsible mobile app development practice compels you to rethink the security of your app as you build it. But, mobile application security testings are easier said than done. Which is why we have put together this guide to help you out.
According to a survey, over 98% of mobile apps are not secure! This is due to one major fallacy in their app development practice which pushes security testing to the end of the development cycle. Or worse, abandon it altogether.
With this blog post, you will learn about – some astonishing mobile app hacking stats, the common security risks to mobile apps, basics of mobile app security testing, and steps to carry out an end-to-end mobile app security testing. With a mention of automated tools.
Mobile apps hacking statistics
A study by App Annie shows that mobile apps downloads reached 204 billion in 2019 and the worldwide app store consumer spend increased to $120 billion.
Although the popularity of mobile apps is quite evident, risks related to mobile app security has also risen. Here are the few security stats for mobile apps:
- 1 out of 36 devices is compromised by a mobile app security threat.
- Nearly 10,000 rogue apps are responsible for 28% of all attacks (in 2018). (Source: RSA’s recent report)
- 71% of fraud transactions came from mobile apps and mobile browsers (in 2018).
Types of mobile apps
- Web apps: Normal web applications built-in HTML and accessed from your mobile.
- Native apps: Specifically built for a particular OS and uses OS-specific features.
- Hybrid apps: Similar to native apps but behave like web apps leveraging the benefits of both types.
Criteria for mobile app security testing
Analyzing threat and modeling
The first step is to produce and analyze any potential threat. This is done by checking the parameters as mentioned below:
- While downloading an app, if it stores any logs within the app store including credentials or account information, there might be a chance of a data leak.
- If apps store user credentials, the developers need to analyze any potential threat to the user data.
- Users need to scrutinize the data shown on an app, as the attackers can exploit this data shown by hijacking sessions or snooping.
- Apps can quickly send and receive data thanks to high-speed internet connectivity. Attackers can capture this data, to avoid which, all transmitted data can be encrypted.
- Interconnection with other apps or third-party services needs to be secured. Any vulnerability in the structure can endanger all services of the app.
Analyzing Mobile Application vulnerabilities
During vulnerability analysis, you need to check the app for any security gaps, the responsiveness of the security defenses, and whether they can counter any attack in real-time. Before jumping into this stage, ensure that there is a list of vulnerabilities to check and a format to capture all findings.
A complete vulnerability analysis consists of checking components in a broader level, including network, operating system of the phone, and hardware.
Understanding mobile app security issues: Android vs iOS
Although it wouldn’t be entirely true to say that app developers are shoddy about security, it can’t be ruled out either. The fact that so many apps are getting hacked increasingly has something to do with the poor security infrastructure of these apps. Now, the apps on Android are a bit differently developed and distributed than their iOS counterparts. This means the security issues in both these platforms differ too.
Mobile app security issues in Android:
Mobile app hacking stats show that Android apps are more badly hit than the iTunes ones. One major reason behind this is Android’s open-source environment. Being open-source means, anyone is free to use (or make changes to) Android’s source code for app development.
Further, Android OS does not hold a strict screening process for apps to encourage the development and sharing of more & more apps. In the absence of a thorough screening & testing of apps, Android has become home for one of the most vulnerable mobile apps – both in number and severity.
Major security issues in an Android app include:
- MITM (Man-in-the-Middle Attacks)
- Phishing and Social engineering
- Component related threats
- Permissions based issues
Mobile app security issues in iOS:
iOS apps are comparatively less vulnerable than Android apps because of their closed development environment. Also because Apple follows a meticulous screening process for their apps.
That said, it is not to assume that iOS apps are free from security risks. Market share analysis tells us that iOS operating system is more frequently used by the affluent divide, which automatically makes it a hot target for hackers. In fact, despite the security screening and closed environment, iOS has not been entirely successful in keeping off the attacks. There have been numerous instances where iOS apps, devices, and other data was hacked.
Major security issues found in an ios app include:
- Storing data locally on the device
- Phishing and Social engineering
- Allowing 301 Redirects
- Stolen certificates to host apps
Besides security risks emanating from the basic structure and build of the two operating systems, there are other common mobile app security issues faced by Mobile apps regardless.
According to a list issued by OWASP in 2016, the top 10 mobile app security issues are:
- Improper Platform Usage
- Insecure Data Storage
- Insecure Communication
- Insecure Authentication
- Insufficient Cryptography
- Insecure Authorization
- Client Code Quality
- Code Tampering
- Reverse Engineering
- Extraneous Functionality
Development fall-outs in mobile app security
Several other security issues in Android and iOS stem from poor development practices and maintenance. Here’s what developers have been doing wrong while building an app:
- Not securing components of their apps
- Ignoring insecure interprocess communication
- Not thinking about secure data storage
- Not using universal links
- Overlooking configuration flaws (Configuration flaws include disclosure of sensitive information in error messages, fingerprinting in HTTP headers, and TRACE availability.)
- Not testing their code in every development stage and on runtime
- Not planning for caching & logging Vulnerabilities
- Not patching your code fast enough
Mobile app security testing as a solution
The best way to prevent any mobile app security issues is to hack your application yourself.
Mobile app security testing is the best way to accomplish that. Ideally, a mobile app security test should be conducted before you launch your app for public use, however, if you have missed doing that, the next best time to do a security testing is today.
Mobile app security testing consists of two processes — Vulnerability Assessment (VA) and Penetration Testing (PT) — usually performed in tandem:
- Vulnerability assessment: involves the evaluation of the application’s infrastructure and security mechanism to detect possible vulnerabilities & loopholes in the app.
- Penetration testing: As the name suggests, it involves exploiting the vulnerabilities found in the VA to assess the scope of a possible hack via that vulnerability.
In simpler words, VA lists the vulnerabilities and PT provides a clear picture of their severity.
How to perform mobile application security testing
1. Define the goal of the security audit
Security audits are vast and multi-purpose. Hence before you begin with the process know your number one reason why you are doing the audit. What is it that you hope to find or correct? Will there be actions at the end of the process. Once all this is answered, make a list of priority security areas you need to assess first. Then, as you go on and cover these areas, you can always add new ones.
The goal of a mobile app security testing can be any of the following things:
- To check if there’s a security mechanism in place
- To confirm a management control framework exists
- To check if there are right configurations set
- To check if the application has been tested in each stage and with different test cases
- To check all communication between a user and the application and application and server is encrypted
- To detect and manage all threats and risks to the app
- To check proper authentication process is implemented
- To check session and cookies are properly handled
- To confirm security requirements are met in contract management
- To check the secure data storing process is implemented
High on priority security areas in a mobile app shall include:
- App permissions
- Authentication and Authorization
- Session and cookies
- Data storage
2. Threat analysis and modelling
Threat analysis is a process to identify potential threats in a system. Threat analysis & modeling has four components:
- App architecture
- App resources
- Third-party interaction
- Threat agents
While evaluating your mobile app for vulnerabilities, being pessimist is the key. Think of all the components and functionalities that could allow a hacker in. Since you already have a list of high-priority areas, start with them first. List down all potential security risks in them. For an even precise result, develop test cases (usually a permutation of different app functions, operating systems, versions, user roles, permissions, and so on) and analyze your app for those.
To quicken the process of threat analysis and modeling for your mobile app you can use these automated tools:
- Android Debug Bridge: Android Debug Bridge (ADB) is a command-line tool that is used to assess and debug mobile apps. ADB is a client-server program consisting of three components: Client, Daemon, and Server. ADB is a great security testing tool, however, it is limited to the Android OS, which brings us to the next tool. ADB is available in the Android SDK Platform-Tools package. However, you can also download ADB with the SDK Manager or directly from here.
- Mobile Security Framework (MobSF): Mobile Security Framework (MobSF) is an automated security testing framework for Android, iOS, and Windows platforms. It performs static and dynamic analysis for mobile app security testing. Follow this guide to install MobSF.
- iMAS: iMAS (iOS Mobile Application Security) is an iOS security testing framework to find out vulnerabilities in an iOS mobile application. iMAS works great in detecting vulnerabilities related to security controls, CWE, system Passcode, jailbreak, debugger/run-time, flash storage, and keychain.
Threat analysis is work half-done. By now, you know what are the possible vulnerabilities threatening your app and the test case it is occurring with. Now, all you need to do is to estimate the scope of these vulnerabilities. By scope, I mean the penetration of these vulnerabilities in causing damage to your app. In other words, the severity of the vulnerabilities.
The tools you can use for this are:
- QARK (Quick Android Review Kit): Developed by LinkedIN, QARK is an automated Android pen-testing tool. You can scan all components of your mobile app to detect any misconfigurations and threats. QARK also highlights issues in your Android version.
To install QARK, use the following command:
~ git clone https://github.com/linkedin/qark ~ cd qark ~ pip install -r requirements.txt ~ pip install . --user # --user is only needed if not using a virtualenv
Follow this detailed guide on how to use QARK for Mobile app security testing.
- Zed Attack Proxy (ZAP): ZAP is a free security testing tool used by thousands of pen-testers around the globe. ZAP is developed by OWASP and is one of the most preferred tools for manual security testing.
To download ZAP for Linux OS, use this link.
- Mitmproxy: Mitmproxy is a free and open-source tool to identify MITM (Man-in-the-Middle) vulnerabilities in a mobile app. It is an HTTP proxy that can be used to intercept, inspect, modify and replay web traffic such as HTTP/1, HTTP/2, WebSockets, or any other SSL/TLS-protected protocols in a mobile app. mitmproxy is a great way to exploit client-server communications of your mobile app and identify the underlying vulnerabilities.
So far, you have set a definitive goal for the audit, analyzed your app and it’s supporting infrastructure for vulnerabilities, exploited vulnerabilities to determine their criticalness. By the end of the previous step, you should have a list of vulnerabilities segregated according to their severity.
In this step, you fix the vulnerabilities, focusing first on the critical ones.
Too complex for you? Get Astra Security
If the above process sounds too much of work, you can totally trade it for an easier yet more thorough option. I am talking about taking a professional mobile app security audit. At Astra Security, we regularly help app developers to secure their apps by finding vulnerabilities in their apps.
Here’s how Astra’s VAPT work:
Security tips for safe mobile app development
Lastly, after you have tested your solution for security risks, it is time you protect it too. Besides patching and updating your mobile application regularly, there are other security practices you can undertake. Follow this exhaustive guide on 10 security tips for your mobile app development to learn more.